Why has Judaism decided that Jesus is not their Messiah or Savior? Part has to do with all the persecution and torture done in the name of Jesus by people professing themselves to be Christians. From the Crusades, to the Inquisition, to the pogroms in Europe, to Hitler’s holocaust, being a “Christian” and the name of Jesus has been associated with horrendous things.
Partly because the concept of a man who is the son of God sounds contrary to the concept of one God which is the foundation of Judaism.
Partly because Judaism does not teach about the need for salvation, the need for a savior.
And partly because some argue that Jesus did not fulfill all the prophecies in the Hebrew Bible. There are a multitude of prophecies about a Messiah who will come as ruling, triumphant King and set up his kingdom. This hasn’t happened yet.
So Judaism dismisses the fulfilled predictions stating they are wrong or mistranslations, and also points to those still unfulfilled ones and states that Jesus cannot possibly be THE Messiah.
However let us take a look at two sets of prophecies. One shows the Messiah suffering as an atonement for sin (Psalm 22, Isaiah 52:13–Isaiah 53, Daniel 9:25-26, Zechariah 12:10.) The other shows the Messiah reigning and bringing about the redemption of Israel, the end of war, and universal knowledge of God (Isaiah 2:1-4, Isaiah 11:1-9, Ezekiel 40-48, Daniel 2:44, Zechariah 14.)
What is the Rabbinic response to this?
One fascinating possibility, which can be traced to the third or fourth century, is that there are two Messiahs: one called “Messiah son of Joseph,” who suffers and dies; the other called “Messiah son of David,” who rules and reigns. The suffering Messiah is given the name “Son of Joseph” because He suffers rejection and humiliation like Joseph in Egypt (Genesis 37-41.) The reigning Messiah is given the name “Son of David” because He reigns in triumph like King David.
So are there two Messiahs, or do the Prophets describe the same Messiah who is coming on two different occasions with two different purposes?
Upon close examination, Jesus definitely fulfilled the Messianic prophecies of the Suffering Servant. He fulfilled other Messianic prophecies as well.
Here is a list of 365 Messianic Prophecies that Jesus fulfilled. What are the odds?
When Messiah Jesus returns in power and glory, He will be revealed as the longed for Messiah, Son of David. He will bring an end to the conflict which will be raging over Jerusalem, threatening the world with destruction (Zechariah 12-14, Revelation 16-19.) He will destroy the world system responsible for corruption and wickedness on earth and for the tribulation (Jeremiah 51, Revelation 18) and He will set up a kingdom from Jerusalem, bringing peace and justice to the nations of the world (Isaiah 2:1-4, Revelation 20:4-6.)
The fact that Jesus did not bring lasting peace at His first coming does not disprove that He is indeed the promised One of Israel. It is part of God’s plan that Messiah would come once to die for our sin, bringing salvation and forgiveness to all who believe, and then later return as Judge and King. The view of two comings of Messiah fits perfectly with the two distinct “portraits” of the suffering and reigning Messiah found in the Hebrew Scriptures.
The English word “gospel” comes from two old English words, “god spell” meaning “good news“, or, as it is sometimes used, “glad tidings“. This is the translation of the Greek word “enaggelion” or “evangelion“.
In the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh [Tanach], Old Testament), the word “besorah” is used, and in English is translated as, yes, the same as “gospel”… “good news” or “tidings.”
Gospel is a proclamation of good news, either oral or written, typically announcing a positive event of public importance, such as victory in battle, the accession of a king, the death of an enemy.
Interesting to note that the Hebrew Bible includes small portions in Aramaic, written and printed in Aramaic square-script, which was adopted as the Hebrew alphabet after the Babylonian exile. Also, by the time of the New Testament, many Jews didn’t even speak Hebrew anymore. Rome had conquered Greece, and the influence of Greek culture had saturated the empire.
Now, before you assert that the word “gospel” (again, which means “good news”) has connotations from the New Testament that are NOT for Jews, let us take a look in our Hebrew Bible at the usage of the word “besorah”(which again, also means “good news”.)
Originally, the word “besorah” was used to describe the report of victory in battle ( 2 Samuel 4:10.) As the Israelites believed God was actively involved in their lives (including battles and wars) it evolved in it’s connotation. To proclaim the good news of Israel’s success in battle was to proclaim God’s triumph over God’s enemies. Believing credit for the victory belonged to God, the Israelites’ proclamation of the good news of victory was, in fact, proclamation about God.
The transition from the use of “besorah” in a military setting, to its use in a personal context, is pretty basic. If Israel proclaimed good news when God delivered the nation from its enemies, individuals would also want to proclaim good news when God delivered them from personal distress (Psalm 40:10.) The nation’s victories in war and a person’s individual victories both called for the announcement of what God had done.
The Book of Isaiah marks the full development of the term within the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh [Tanach], Old Testament). By this time the word is most often used to describe the anticipated deliverance and salvation which would come from the hand of God when the long awaited Messiah appeared to deliver Israel (Isaiah 52:7.) The military-political and personal connotations of the word were fully united in the hope of a Deliverer who would both triumph over the earthly enemies of God’s people and usher in a new age of salvation. The arrival of this Messiah would be good news.
In the Hebrew Bible, the verb form of “besorah” dominates in usage. A noun derived from the verb does appear on occasion, but the vast majority of references are to the verb itself.
Besorah or good news/tidings is made in the following places (please note, this list is for the usage of the word, not necessarily to imply that the news was actually good for the Israelites): 1 Samuel 4:17, 1 Samuel 31:9, 2 Samuel 4:10, 2 Samuel 18:19-20, 26, 31, 1 Kings 1:42, 1 Chronicles 10:9, 1 Chronicles 16:23, Psalm 40:10 Tanakh; 40:9 OT, Psalm 68:12 Tanakh; 68:11 OT, Psalm 96:2, Isaiah 40:9, Isaiah 41:27, Isaiah 52:7, Isaiah 60:6, Isaiah 61:1, Jeremiah 20:15, Nahum 2:1 Tanakh, 1:15 OT.
Delving even deeper “besorah” is from the root “basar”. The intensive form “bissier” means to bring (good) news. (In grammar, an intensive word form is one which denotes stronger, more forceful, or more concentrated action relative to the root on which the intensive is built).
“Basar” means “to bear tidings” and “basar” also means “flesh.” “Basar” meaning “flesh” occurs before Adam sinned. Adam already was flesh and bone. (Genesis 2:21.)
Then in Genesis 2:23-24 “And man said, ‘This time, it is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. This one shall be called ishah (woman) because this one was taken from ish (man). Therefore, a man shall leave his father and his mother, and cleave to his wife, and they shall become one flesh.’”
English “Gospel”; Greek “enaggelion” or “evangelion”; Hebrew “besorah.” Word study is so fascinating!
Let us consider for a moment that the English word “Gospel” states that the proclamation of good news is “they shall be one flesh.” God’s Gospel states the very way that we become connected with Him, with nothing separating us, ever. That is Good News!
Judaism does not prohibit writing the name of G-d, it prohibits only erasing or defacing a name of G-d. However, some avoid writing any name of His casually because of the risk that the written name might later be defaced, obliterated or destroyed accidentally. The commandment not to erase or deface the name of G-d comes from Deuteronomy 12:3. From this, rabbis inferred that we are commanded not to destroy any holy thing, and not to erase or deface His name.
This rabbinic prohibition applies only to what is written in some kind of permanent form, and rabbis decided that writing on a computer is not a permanent form. However, once you print the document out, it becomes a permanent form. That is why many will avoid writing the name out. Generally I will write the name “God” on this website/blog.
It is not a biblical holiday and it has it’s roots in Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism. It is a minor holiday that has been adopted by the Orthodox Jewish Rabbinic community and some other adherents to the Jewish religion.
In the 16th century in Israel, a Rabbi created a Tu B’Shevat seder, something like the Passover Seder, that celebrates the Tree of Life but with Kabbalistic principles.
Tu B’Shevat, the New Year of Trees, is the first sign on the calendar that spring is approaching and with it, the rich and deeply meaningful Passover season. Even among those who are not following the Kabbalistic rite, it is a custom to eat dried fruits and nuts.
As I will grab any opportunity to talk about the Messiah and share the full gospel of Jesus, here we go! There is a powerful significance of The Tree of Life. Sin entered our world by an act of eating from a tree. The victory over sin also was obtained by means of a tree, on that day when Messiah hung on a tree and took upon himself the curse on sin (Deuteronomy 21:22-23, Galatians 3:13.)
The Bible is a love story. It is a huge, continuous story through 66 books describing who God is, what God created, and why. It is the love story of God meeting us where we are at; rebellious, sinful, failing, guilty, striving yet never reaching. God meets us with His rescue, His salvation, His favor, His grace, His mercy, His goodness.
The main character is God and He can be found on every page. When we read and study the Bible, while it may certainly help us, it is there for us to hear from God. Through His word God teaches, challenges, encourages, and yes also rebukes us, to better equip us to do whatever tasks He has specifically designed us to do.
The Bible contains the only true, stable, unchangeable standard of behavior; the one set by God. We learn about His standards in the Bible. Many people accept that as truth, and many ridicule it and decide to set their own standard for behavior.
However, while many like to coin the Bible “the blueprint for living”, it is not. To suggest that it is, diminishes it’s power and love to a rules manual, an operational book.
Let us look at it this way, if the Bible is the “manual for life” it makes me (or you) the center of life. The whole reason for going to the Bible then is so that “I” or “you” can know how to live. Yes, sounds noble because our default seems to be “what do I have to do?”
In this scenario however, the Bible becomes a means to an end, us striving to make ourselves better. Again, sounds noble, however the story of “me, me, all about me” is NOT what the Bible is about. When life becomes me centered and me powered, even when we give lip service and verbal credit to God and His power, it is legalism. Ouch!
Well, what exactly is legalism? Following God and His ways becomes reduced to principles or rules that we apply. In the end, God and His Grace, God and His life changing power, along with the love relationship between God and His human creation, is taken out of the picture.
The Bible tells us of the perfect standard that God is (which also helps us to realize that while we learn God’s will for us in how He would like us to behave, we will not in this life down here on earth be able to reach His standard as His standard is nothing less than absolute perfection). However, every book in the Bible is love filled, mercy filled, grace filled, as it contains His gospel (besorah, good news) message. The deeper this message seeps and sinks into us, the more we will reflect just who God designed us to reflect, Him!
When the Bible tells me to work out my salvation, it does not mean to go out and get what I do not have; get more patience, get more strength, get more joy, get more love. Growth happens by working out of me what God has already placed in me; living out the reality of what I do have. I become more spiritually mature when I focus more on all that God has already done for me, and less on what I need to do for God.
This is how we are called to work out our salvation: “So then, my beloved, just as you have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your salvation with fear and trembling; for it is God who is at work in you, both to will and to work for His good pleasure.“ Philippians 2:12-13
The litmus test is this; if you are thinking more about what you need to do, than what God has already done, your focus is on yourself, and not on God.
So, what has God already done? All this talk about the gospel, what does it all mean? So glad you asked! I will send you over here to bring you deeper into this material.
Current day, most Rabbis will say that this passage speaks of Israel.
If one studies the ancient Rabbinical literature (Midrash) one will find a wealth of fascinating Messianic Rabbinic Commentary that discusses Isaiah 53 speaking of Messiah. I wish there would be a full volume of this literature in English online; unfortunately there does not appear to be. Here are some excerpts.
Babylonian Talmud: “The Messiah –what is his name?…The Rabbis say, The Leper Scholar, as it is said, `surely he has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him a leper, smitten of God and afflicted…'” (Sanhedrin 98b)
Midrash Ruth Rabbah:“Another explanation (of Ruth ii.14): — He is speaking of king Messiah; `Come hither,’ draw near to the throne; `and eat of the bread,’ that is, the bread of the kingdom; `and dip thy morsel in the vinegar,’ this refers to his chastisements, as it is said, `But he was wounded for our transgressions, bruised for our iniquities'”
Targum Jonathan: “Behold my servant Messiah shall prosper; he shall be high and increase and be exceedingly strong…”
Zohar: “`He was wounded for our transgressions,’ etc….There is in the Garden of Eden a palace called the Palace of the Sons of Sickness; this palace the Messiah then enters, and summons every sickness, every pain, and every chastisement of Israel; they all come and rest upon him. And were it not that he had thus lightened them off Israel and taken them upon himself, there had been no man able to bear Israel’s chastisements for the transgression of the law: and this is that which is written, `Surely our sicknesses he hath carried.'”
Rabbi Moses Maimonides:“What is the manner of Messiah’s advent….there shall rise up one of whom none have known before, and signs and wonders which they shall see performed by him will be the proofs of his true origin; for the Almighty, where he declares to us his mind upon this matter, says, `Behold a man whose name is the Branch, and he shall branch forth out of his place’ (Zech. 6:12). And Isaiah speaks similarly of the time when he shall appear, without father or mother or family being known, He came up as a sucker before him, and as a root out of dry earth, etc….in the words of Isaiah, when describing the manner in which kings will harken to him, At him kings will shut their mouth; for that which had not been told them have they seen, and that which they had not heard they have perceived.” (From the Letter to the South (Yemen), quoted in The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters, Ktav Publishing House, 1969, Volume 2, pages 374-5)
Rabbi Mosheh Kohen Ibn Crispin:This rabbi described those who interpret Isaiah 53 as referring to Israel as those: “having forsaken the knowledge of our Teachers, and inclined after the `stubbornness of their own hearts,’ and of their own opinion, I am pleased to interpret it, in accordance with the teaching of our Rabbis, of the King Messiah….This prophecy was delivered by Isaiah at the divine command for the purpose of making known to us something about the nature of the future Messiah, who is to come and deliver Israel, and his life from the day when he arrives at discretion until his advent as a redeemer, in order that if anyone should arise claiming to be himself the Messiah, we may reflect, and look to see whether we can observe in him any resemblance to the traits described here; if there is any such resemblance, then we may believe that he is the Messiah our righteousness; but if not, we cannot do so.” (From his commentary on Isaiah, quoted in The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters, Ktav Publishing House, 1969, Volume 2, pages 99-114.)
Why Isaiah 53 Most Definitely Speaks of The Messiah and Not Israel
1) The consistent use of pronouns in the passage makes it clear that the suffering servant is an individual separate from the Jewish people as a whole to whom Isaiah was speaking. The suffering servant is always referred to in the singular (he, him, himself, and his) while the people of Israel are referred to in the plural (we, us, and our or my people).
2) Israel observed the suffering of the righteous servant.
3) The suffering servant died for the transgressions, or sins, of the “my” people. Clearly, “my people” is Isaiah’s people, the people of Israel. The passage would make no sense if the suffering servant were Israel. In that case, Israel would die for Israel’s sins. In other words, Israel would have gotten what she deserved, which makes no sense. The entire passage speaks of the suffering servant suffering and dying for, on behalf of, or in place of Israel.
4) In verse 10, the suffering servant is offered as an “asham,” or guilt offering. Throughout the Hebrew Scriptures, the guilt offering was never Israel, nor could it ever have been Israel. The guilt offering, or “asham,” was always offered on behalf of or in place of the one who had committed the trespass or sin. It was never offered for or on behalf of the asham itself. (No one could ever be an “asham” for his or her own sins.) An asham offering was always offered by an individual and never by the nation of Israel. In addition, the offering had to be without blemish, or sinless. Because the offering was without blemish, it was always offered for the sins of someone other than the asham itself. For all of these reasons, Israel cannot be the suffering servant who offers himself as an asham offering.
5) The “asham” always had to die. The suffering servant clearly died. He was “cut off out of the land of the living,” he had a grave; he was with the rich “in his death;” and he “poured out his soul unto death.” However, Israel never died. In fact, it is impossible for Israel to ever die, because God promised Israel that she would live forever.
6) The suffering servant suffered a vicarious and substitutionary death. He suffers for the sins of others, so they need not suffer for their own sins. Nowhere in the Hebrew Bible nor in Jewish history do we ever see Israel suffering for, on behalf of, or in place of the Gentiles, so that the Gentiles do not have to suffer. The suffering servant bore the sins of the people, so they would not have to bear their own sins or be judged for them. If the servant is Israel and the people are the Gentiles, then the Gentiles would not need to be punished for their sins, as they would have been vicariously borne by Israel. This has never been the case. The Gentiles were never deemed innocent after Jews suffered at their hands. Instead, they were judged for mistreating Jewish people.
7) The suffering servant has qualities that were never true of Israel: The suffering servant is depicted as being innocent. He did no violence, and there was no deceit in his mouth. Israel is never told she would suffer for being innocent. And, Israel is never depicted as being innocent. That was why so many sacrifices were needed. Israel was never righteous, or even close to being righteous. Throughout the Hebrew Scriptures, Israel is pictured as continually rejecting God and being repeatedly judged for her sins. This is in sharp contrast to the suffering servant of Isaiah 53, who is portrayed as an innocent sufferer. The suffering servant is the most righteous person described in Scripture. In Isaiah 53:11, he is called “Tsadeek ahvdee”, or “My righteous servant.” This is the only place in the entire Hebrew Bible where this phrase is used. It certainly is never used of Israel. In addition, neither Abraham, Moses, David, nor any other prophet or ruler was ever called “Tsadeek ahvdee”, or “My righteous servant” in the Hebrew Bible, except for the suffering servant of Isaiah 53. Only one righteous or without any blemish could die as a sacrifice for sin. However, no normal human was ever considered righteous on his or her own. (See Psalm 14:2-3 and Psalm 53:2-3.) This suffering servant must, therefore, be someone greater than Abraham, Moses, or David.
8) The suffering servant is depicted as being a silent sufferer, in that, like a lamb, he did not protest his execution nor did he defend himself. He, instead, suffered willingly and voluntarily. While Israel has suffered immeasurable persecution, she has never done so willingly or voluntarily. Israel has always cried out against the inhumanity of people against her.
9) Israel was promised that if they obeyed God, they would be greatly blessed. Only if they were disobedient would they be cursed. If Israel were the righteous servant of Isaiah 53, it would have been impossible for her to have suffered and died under the conditions and in the manner described in this passage.
10) Isaiah 53:1 refers to the suffering servant as “the Arm of the Lord.” There are thirty seven references to the Arm of the Lord in the Tanakh. Never does that phrase refer to Israel. The Arm of the Lord acts on behalf of Israel, but is never Israel. Among other things, the Arm of the Lord redeems and delivers Israel when Israel is not able to deliver herself. (See, Exodus 6:6, Exodus 15:16, Deuteronomy 4:34, 5:14, 9:29, 26:8, II Kings 17:36, Psalm 44:4, and Ezekiel 20:33-34.) Therefore the suffering servant, the Arm of the Lord, cannot be Israel.
Please, examine and analyze this block of scripture for yourself Isaiah 52:13-Isaiah 53, not based on what is written here or what others may have written or told you. It is truly an incredible journey of discovery!
Rabbinic Judaism is the Jewish religion along with the expression of Jewish identity. The foundation is the Tanakh, also spelled Tanach (Old Testament) Scriptures, however the religious interpretation and practices center around the teachings of Rabbis (Talmud, also known as Oral Law). Therefore it is called Rabbinic Judaism.
The three main branches of Rabbinic Judaism are Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform. Laws, rules, and traditions are modified or removed, depending on each branch. These all believe that both the Tanakh and the Talmud were revealed to Moses by God on Mount Sinai. Orthodox and Conservative Judaism maintain that the Jewish law (Halakha or Halakkah) should be followed, with Conservative Judaism promoting a more “modern” and less restrictive interpretation of it’s requirements than the Orthodox. Reform Judaism is more liberal and views Jewish law as a set of general guidelines rather than required literal observance.
Other Rabbinic Jewish groups include: Karaite Judaism which maintains that only the written Torah (Tanakh) was revealed to Moses by God (they do not accept the Talmud), Humanistic Judaism which is non theistic (not believing in the existence of God), and Reconstructionist Judaism which believes that Judaism is an “evolving religious civilization” which does not believe in a personified deity that is active in history, and they do not believe that God “chose” the Jewish people.
What is of grave concern is that while there is much beauty in the religious traditions, in the focus on the religion and the religion alone, the meaning of the experience being upheld, why to uphold it, how firmly and perfectly means it was upheld, and where does one go from here, is all unclear. Yet, Tanakh/Hebrew scripture is clear on that there is an eternal destination, and is equally clear that we cannot behave our way there on our own merits. There is a conflict, a dichotomy between the Jewish religion, regardless of which branch or group of Rabbinic Judaism, and what our Hebrew scriptures say.
This brings us to:
Messianic Judaism is the belief system along with the expression of Jewish identity that encompasses both the Tanakh (Tanach, Old Testament (OT) Hebrew Scriptures), and the New Testament (NT, New Covenant, B’rit Chadasha, Greek Scriptures), so 66 books of the Bible in all.
Messianic Judaism is not about being intermarried or the child of an intermarriage and combining two worlds into one, this is for anyone who after delving deep into the scriptures of the Tanakh finds themselves with some pressing questions or the feeling that there might be a missing piece to the puzzle.
The 66 books of the Bible, are the inspired, the only infallible, authoritative Word of God. It is the supreme and final authority on all matters on which it speaks. (Jeremiah 31:30-33 Tanakh [31-34 OT], Jeremiah 32:37-40, Jeremiah 33:14-16, Ezekiel 16:58-63, Ezekiel 36:26-29, Ezekiel 37:21-26, Isaiah 55:3-8, 2 Timothy 3:16-17.)
The Shema, “Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one” (Deuteronomy 6:4), teaches that God is Echad, as so declared: a united one, a composite unity, eternally existent in plural oneness. The three form one as does 1 x 1 x 1 = 1. [Genesis 1:1 (Elohim: God); Genesis 1:26 “Let Us make man in Our image”; Genesis 2:24 Adam & Eve were created to be as one flesh (basar echad), Isaiah 48:16 “Draw near to Me, hearken to this; in the beginning I did not speak in secret, from the time it was, there was I, and now, the Lord God has sent me, and His spirit.“]
The Jewish holidays and traditions are honoring to God, are important for cultural identity, are totally biblical, and often give us a deeper understanding of God and our history. However the focus is not on the “religion” of the holidays.
The practice of making New Year’s resolutions goes back over 3,000 years to the ancient Babylonians. However, you know as well as I, although there can an incredible feeling of freedom and newness associated with the thought of a blank slate, a fresh start that a new year is, calendar wise at least, there is absolutely nothing different that occurs between December 31 and January 1. Why is it too that most new year’s resolutions fail?
Scripture does not discuss resolutions but it certainly contains wisdom related to them. A new year is a terrific time to stop for a moment and contemplate your current day life and ponder on the direction you are considering for your life over the upcoming year.
God does tell us to plan. Proverbs 21:5 “The plans of a diligent man lead only to advantage, whereas every hasty one hurries only to want”, Proverbs 24:27 “Prepare your work outside and make it fit in the field for yourself; afterwards you shall build your house.”
At the same time He also reminds us that He is ultimately the One who is making the plans, Proverbs 16:9 “A man’s heart plans his way, but the Lord prepares his step”, Psalm 37:23 “From the Lord a mighty man’s steps are established, for He delights in his way.”
This includes how life unfolds and the desires in our heart. Psalm 37:4-7 “So shall you delight in the Lord, and He will give you what your heart desires. Commit your way to the Lord, and trust in Him and He will act. And He will reveal your righteousness like the light, and your judgments like noon. Wait for the Lord and hope for Him; do not compete with one whose way prospers, with a man who executes malicious plans.”
So, the vision, the overview, the thoughts on the direction of our life for this next year… ask God. Truly seek Him, read the Bible, walk out your day to day life, humble yourself to check your thoughts and ideas with what His Word says. And then as He places the thoughts in your mind, and as you check these thoughts out with what scripture says, He will stir you to action, and propel you in all the ways only He can.
Although it is something that may take some getting used to, it is the most freeing, exciting thing to seek God and then let things flow! I pray for you to be blessed in the journey this new year, 2019! To God be the glory!